THE COUP D’ETAT IN NOVEMBER 1947
For the next three years Phibun struggled to maintain his government against numerous attempted coups by rival military factions. To build support, he allowed disaffected political groups, including Khuang’s conservative Democrat Party, to participate in drafting a new constitution, which was promulgated in 1949.
Phibun’s policies during his second government (1948-57) were similar to those he had initiated in the late 1930s. He restored the use of the name Thailand in 1949. (In reaction to extreme nationalism, there had been a reversion to the name Siam in 1946.) Legislation to make Thai social behavior conform to Western standards–begun by Phibun before the war–was reintroduced.
Secondary education was improved, and military appropriations were substantially increased. The Phibun regime was also characterized by harassment of Chinese and the tendency to regard them as disloyal and, after 1949, as communists.
Phibun’s anticommunist position had great influence on his foreign policy. Thailand refused to recognize the People’s Republic of China, supported UN action in Korea in 1950, and backed the French against communist insurgents in Indochina. Phibun’s Thailand was regarded as the most loyal supporter of United States foreign policy in mainland Southeast Asia.